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Civil Code

Preliminary Title

Chapter 1. General Principles

Art.1. Sources of law

The sources of law are legislation and custom.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.2. Legislation

Legislation is a solemn expression of legislative will.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.3. Custom

Custom results from practice repeated for a long time and generally accepted as having acquired the force of law. Custom may not abrogate legislation.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.4. Absence of legislation or custom

When no rule for a particular situation can be derived from legislation or custom, the court is bound to proceed according to equity. To decide equitably, resort is made to justice, reason, and prevailing usages.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.5. Ignorance of law

No one may avail himself of ignorance of the law.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.6. Retroactivity of laws

In the absence of contrary legislative expression, substantive laws apply prospectively only. Procedural and interpretative laws apply both prospectively and retroactively, unless there is a legislative expression to the contrary.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.7. Laws for the preservation of the public interest

Persons may not by their juridical acts derogate from laws enacted for the protection of the public interest. Any act in derogation of such laws is an absolute nullity.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art.8. Repeal of laws

Laws are repealed, either entirely or partially, by other laws. A repeal may be express or implied. It is express when it is literally declared by a subsequent law. It is implied when the new law contains provisions that are contrary to, or irreconcilable with, those of the former law. The repeal of a repealing law does not revive the first law.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Chapter 2. Interpretation of Laws
Art. 9. Clear and unambiguous law

When a law is clear and unambiguous and its application does not lead to absurd consequences, the law shall be applied as written and no further interpretation may be made in search of the intent of the legislature.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art. 10. Language susceptible of different meanings

When the language of the law is susceptible of different meanings, it must be interpreted as having the meaning that best conforms to the purpose of the law.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art. 11. Meaning of words

The words of a law must be given their generally prevailing meaning. Words of art and technical terms must be given their technical meaning when the law involves a technical matter.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art. 12. Ambiguous words

When the words of a law are ambiguous, their meaning must be sought by examining the context in which they occur and the text of the law as a whole.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Art. 13. Laws on the same subject matter

Laws on the same subject matter must be interpreted in reference to each other.

Acts 1987, No. 124, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1988.

Chapter 3. Conflict of Laws
Art. 14. Multistate cases

Unless otherwise expressly provided by the law of this state, cases having contacts with other states are governed by the law selected in accordance with the provisions of Book IV of this Code.

Acts 1991, No. 923, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1992.